她是理髮師?

Scott Soames 在 Beyond Rigidity 用了一個很有趣的例子,值得一記。 Soames 的原話是:
Mary says that she is a member of an otherwise all male group of adults, and that some member of the group is a barber who shaves all and only those men in the group who don't shave themselves.
這句的意思大概是: Mary 說她是某個群體的成員,那群人之中除了她都是男人,而且那群人裡有成員是理髮師,為且只為群體裡不替自己刮鬍子的男人刮鬍子。(這當然假定了 Mary 不是男人……)

Mary 的話蘊涵「她是理髮師」,如何可能?

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